Make antibiotics from small molecules, flattened, positively charged and have amino groups.
For the first time, a group of researchers found a common formula to fight Gram-negative bacteria. That means that by simply applying the rules, we can synthesize a new antibiotic to fight many current viruses.
Even more amazing, including improving old antibacterial antibiotics – such as attaching them to amino groups, making molecular shapes and positively charged – they will also gain unprecedented possibilities. – Destroy many types of Gram-negative bacteria at the same time.
The new study, published in the journal Nature, is a bright spot in the battle between humans and current antibiotic-resistant viruses.
Why do we have Gram-positive and Gram-positive bacteria?
We know that bacteria are divided into two types by scientists: Gram positive and Gram negative. In case you wonder why this is the explanation: Gram is a staining process of bacterial samples, named after the Danish scientist who invented it, Hans Christian Gram.
He used Gram staining to distinguish two types of bacteria. One has a thick membrane, easy to catch dye is Gram-positive bacteria. The second type has up to two membranes, less for invading dyes, Gram negative bacteria.
After the process of Gram, Gram-positive stain will give up cold colors like green, black or purple. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria will produce warm colors like pink, yellow and red.
The reason for this distinction is because Gram-positive bacteria are thicker but less dangerous to humans. Our bodies are capable of producing compounds, attacking membranes other than Gram-positive bacteria and thereby destroying them.
As for Gram-negative bacteria, they have two membranes. Especially the outermost membrane is encased by a capsule. It not only blocks Gram stains but also blocks all body antigens and antibiotics.
Therefore, Gram-negative bacteria are more dangerous to humans.
Development of Gram-negative antimicrobial drugs is extremely difficult
In today’s nightmare of antibiotic resistance, we cannot just rely on the birth of a new drug. But doctors will crave a whole class of antibiotics, including many drugs with different dynamics, making it impossible or at least difficult to resist it immediately.
In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, the latest antibiotic class we have to fight against them is very old. The drug was introduced in 1968 and, of course, bacteria have now been able to develop strong resistance.
For nearly 50 years, no new antibiotic class has been developed against Gram-negative bacteria. Not because we lack effort, just because this is too difficult.
In 2007, British pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline ended the process of scouring a number of up to half a million compounds that are resistant to E. coli. The results in their report are just a round 0. None of the compounds are eligible to kill Gram-negative bacteria.
Hopefully, when a team of researchers has found a way to overcome the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, it is hoped. That is, they can pass the drug through this membrane to the bacterial cells.
Once inside, no matter what kind of antibiotic a person is, old can effectively kill Gram-negative bacteria, such as specific antibiotics for these dangerous bacteria.
Previously, this was considered difficult because scientists did not know what made antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria. Some studies say antibiotics must be small enough. Extremely small to be able to pass through channels connecting from outside to inside the bacterial cells.
However, there are still tiny antibiotic detected that cannot attack Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, size is not the only factor determining antibiotic treatment ability.
What is a general formula?
To find out the full range of factors that affect this process, the authors of the journal Nature screen screened a total of 180 types of chemicals that could invade Gram-negative E. coli bacteria.
What they found, is that the charge of molecules is an extremely important factor. It determines whether the invasive molecule gets into E. coli. There are 3 types of molecules divided by charge: negative, neutral and positive.
Scientists found that no negatively or neutrally charged molecules could pass to the inside of bacteria. Meanwhile, 12/41 positively charged molecules were able to pass through.
In particular, all 12 molecules carry an amino group, have nitrogen and are positively charged.
In addition, their molecular shape and flexibility also affect their ability to penetrate. The harder, flatter molecules are more accessible to the inside of E. coli.
Previously, some other scientists have also highlighted the importance of charged amino groups. They also tried to turn antibiotics that kill Gram-positive bacteria into drugs that kill both Gram-negative bacteria by adding them to an amino group. But such drugs often do not have pharmacodynamics.
Only in this new study, scientists achieve success. Because of what they do, it’s not just about adding to the molecule of an amino group, but also changing the shape and flexibility of the old antibiotic.
Finally, an antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria was turned into a broad-spectrum antibiotic when it was able to fight against all 4/5 other Gram-negative bacteria. One of these Gram-negative bacteria belongs to the multi-drug resistant strain of the virus.
Writing in a study published in Nature, scientists hope the new rule they find will boost more research to turn conventional antibiotics into broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Just make positively charged molecules, which contain amine groups, have flat shapes, not bridges, we can create antibiotics that resist Gram-negative bacteria, including many dangerous viruses. .